Ferdinand de Saussure — Swiss Educator born on November 26, 1857, died on February 22, 1913

Ferdinand de Saussure was a Swiss linguist and semiotician whose ideas laid a foundation for many significant developments both in linguistics and semiology in the 20th century. He is widely considered one of the fathers of 20th-century linguistics and one of two major fathers of semiotics/semiology... (wikipedia)

Within speech, words are subject to a kind of relation that is independent of the first and based on their linkage: these are syntagmatic relations, of which I have spoken.
A linguistic system is a series of differences of sound combined with a series of differences of ideas.
Everyone, left to his own devices, forms an idea about what goes on in language which is very far from the truth.
Linguistics will have to recognise laws operating universally in language, and in a strictly rational manner, separating general phenomena from those restricted to one branch of languages or another.
Nearly all institutions, it might be said, are based on signs, but these signs do not directly evoke things.